Conversion of rubber seed oil to bio-lubricant using super acid catalyst
Non-edible vegetable oils can be potential alternatives to mineral oils for lubricant base stocks owing to their inherent properties such as high viscosity, high boiling range and iodegradability. In this research, rubber seed oil fatty acid methyl ester (RSOFAME) polymer was derived by polymerisation reaction from RSOFAME to be used as a bio-lubricant base stock. During the reaction, the super-acid HBF4 was used as a homogeneous catalyst. The reaction efficiency strongly depended on the reaction time (1 - 6 hours), reaction temperature (120 - 220oC) and the mass ratio of oil: catalyst (0 - 6wt%). The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analysed for viscosity. The polymerisation product has a higher viscosity than FAME and RSO (96.98cSt, 5.32cSt and 37.0cSt respectively) but lower iodine value (gI2/100g) than FAME and RSO (81.2, 132 and 134 respectively). In addition, the properties of the polymerisation product are better than refined mineral oil properties such as high flash point temperature (255oC), and high viscosity index (131.4). The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 96.98cSt and 12.97cSt at 40oC and 100oC respectively when the conditions of the polymerisation reaction were 200oC, a reaction time of 2 hours, and the oil: catalyst mass ratio of 6wt%.
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